Cognitive dissonance theory is when someone has conflicting attitudes and behaviors or when they behave in a that is not consistent with their own conceptions of themselves. For example, our video shows Ross feeling very uncomfortable after he has found out Rachel is pregnant, which is because his actions and beliefs are clashing. He believed that they were being careful, but her pregnancy showed otherwise, therefore, cognitive dissonance makes him feel this discomfort. When someone experiences cognitive dissonance, they will try to reduce the dissonance by changing their behavior or attitude. In the video, Ross attempts to reduce his dissonance by blaming the condoms for not advertising well enough that there is a 3% chance the woman will get pregnant. The two other ways individuals can reduce dissonance is by changing own behavior to bring it in line with the cognition or by changing one of the dissonant cognitions. Blaming the issue on the circumstances of poor advertising rather than not being careful enough is also known as external justification.